- Educate all groups of prescribers and dispensers (including drug sellers) in the importance of appropriate antimicrobial use and containment of antimicrobial resistance.
- Promote targeted undergraduate and postgraduate educational programs for all health care workers, veterinarians, prescribers and dispensers on accurate diagnosis and management of common infections.
- Encourage prescribers and dispensers to educate patients on antimicrobial use and the importance of adherence to prescribed treatments.
- Improve antimicrobial use by supervision and support of clinical practices, especially diagnostic and treatment strategies.
- Monitor prescribing and dispensing practices and utilize peer group or external standard comparisons to provide feedback and endorsement of appropriate antimicrobial prescribing.
- Encourage development and use of guidelines and treatment algorithms to foster appropriate use of antimicrobials.
- Empower formulary managers to limit antimicrobial use to the prescription of an appropriate range of selected antimicrobials.
- Link professional registration requirements for prescribers and dispensers to requirements for training and continuing education.
- Establish effective hospital therapeutics committees with responsibility for oversight of antimicrobial use in hospitals.
- Develop and regularly update guidelines for antimicrobial treatment, prophylaxis, and hospital antimicrobial formularies.
- Monitor antimicrobial usage, including quantity and patterns of use, and feed back results to prescribers.
- Ensure on-site availability of microbiology laboratory services which are appropriately matched to the level of the hospital (e.g., secondary, tertiary).
- Ensure performance and quality assurance of appropriate diagnostic tests, bacterial identification, antimicrobial susceptibility tests of key pathogens, and timely and relevant reporting of results.
- Ensure that laboratory data are recorded (preferably on a database) and are used to produce clinically and epidemiologically useful surveillance reports of resistance patterns among common pathogens and infections in a timely manner and feed back to prescribers and the infection control programme.
keywords: MRSA, Antibiotic resistance, resistance, WHO, World Health Organisation, CLSI
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